Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder is a subtype of the DSM-5 category of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders (for an overview of this category, see THIS PAGE.)
Laypersons call them “night owls.” DSM-5 calls the condition “Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorder, Delayed Sleep Phase type.” But, that’s a mouthful, so I will continue to call it Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder.
In addition to DSM-5, a very important classification system for sleep disorders is the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2014). It uses the name “Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder.”
What is Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder?
In Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder, the sleep phase is shifted so that the person’s natural tendency is to go to bed late and to wake up late.
The key thing to remember is that if the person is allowed to go to sleep whenever s/he wants and to wake up whenever s/he wants (for example, on vacations) then there is no problem! The person has no difficulty falling asleep, sleeps for enough time, and follows a 24-hour sleep-wake cycle.
But, because the person has to wake up in the morning to go to school or to work, two problems can occur:
1. Difficulty falling asleep
The person may try to go to sleep earlier than their natural bedtime. So, not surprisingly, s/he has difficulty falling asleep. Because of this, many patients with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder are misdiagnosed as having insomnia. About 10% of patients with chronic insomnia (Magee et al., 2016) or who go to a sleep clinic with complaints of recurrent insomnia (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2014) are believed to have Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder
2. Difficulty waking up
The person goes to bed late but has to get up earlier than natural to go to school or work. Not surprisingly, the person finds it difficult to wake up–hitting snooze repeatedly, sleeping through multiple alarms, and so on.
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine guideline adds that the problems with going to sleep and waking up are present both on days when the person has to go to school/ work the next morning and on days when the person is off the next day.
Because of these problems, these persons are typically in a state of chronic sleep deprivation.
Next, please read this page: Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder: Management
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