This article was originally published on March 8, 2022. It was last edited on September 20, 2022.
This page lists medications in the 5 major categories of antihypertensive medications used as first-line treatments (as of September 2022). These 5 categories are:
1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
2. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
3. Thiazide diuretics
4. Calcium channel blockers—Dihydropyridines
5. Calcium channel blockers—Non-dihydropyridines
And, of course, beta-blockers are also used to treat hypertension in special circumstances.
Note: There are many more antihypertensive medications that are considered to be “secondary agents” (Whelton et al., 2018). They are not listed on this page.
Note: In each section below, the medications are listed alphabetically.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Enalaprilat (Vasotec® IV)
Lisinopril (Prinivil®, Zestril®)
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
Eprosartan (Teveten®)—No longer available in the United States
Chlorthalidone (Hygroton®). Among the thiazide diuretics, chlorthalidone is preferred because it has a long half-life and has been shown in clinical trials to reduce cardiovascular disease (Whelton et al., 2018).
Hydrochlorothiazide (generic, Esidrix®, Hydrodiuril®, Microzide®, Oretic®, Zide®)
Calcium channel blockers—Dihydropyridines
Amlodipine (Amvaz®, Katerzia®, Norvasc®). According to the Norvasc® Prescribing Information:”Adult recommended starting dose: 5 mg once daily with maximum dose 10 mg once daily. Small, fragile, or elderly patients, or patients with hepatic insufficiency may be started on 2.5 mg once daily.”
Nicardipine (Cardene®, Cardene® SR)
Nifedipine (Adalat®, Adalat® CC, Afeditab® CR, Nifedical® XL, Nifeditab® CR, Procardia)
Nimodipine (Nimotop®, Nymalize®)
Calcium channel blockers—Non-dihydropyridines
Diltiazem SR (sustained-release) (Cardizem® SR)
Diltiazem ER (extended-release) Cardizem® CD
Verapamil IR (immediate-release) (Calan®, Verelan®, Isoptin®)
Verapamil delayed-onset ER (delayed onset extended-release) (Calan® SR)
Injectable antihypertensive medications
THIS SECTION IS TO BE COMPLETED
Al-Makki A, DiPette D, Whelton PK, Murad MH, Mustafa RA, Acharya S, Beheiry HM, Champagne B, Connell K, Cooney MT, Ezeigwe N, Gaziano TA, Gidio A, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Khan UI, Kumarapeli V, Moran AE, Silwimba MM, Rayner B, Sukonthasan A, Yu J, Saraffzadegan N, Reddy KS, Khan T. Hypertension Pharmacological Treatment in Adults: A World Health Organization Guideline Executive Summary. Hypertension. 2022 Jan;79(1):293-301. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.18192. Epub 2021 Nov 15. PMID: 34775787; PMCID: PMC8654104.
Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC Jr, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA Sr, Williamson JD, Wright JT Jr. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2018 Jun;71(6):1269-1324. doi: 10.1161/HYP.0000000000000066. Epub 2017 Nov 13. Erratum in: Hypertension. 2018 Jun;71(6):e136-e139. Erratum in: Hypertension. 2018 Sep;72(3):e33. PMID: 29133354.
Copyright © 2022, Simple and Practical Medical Education, LLC. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without express written permission.
Disclaimer: The content on this website is provided as general education for medical professionals. It is not intended or recommended for patients or other laypersons or as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Patients must always consult a qualified health care professional regarding their diagnosis and treatment. Healthcare professionals should always check this website for the most recently updated information.